We have been selected as one of the 40 Terra Award finalists out of 357 submissions. The award is the first international prize for contemporary earthen architecture. The final selection of the winner will be in July by Wang Shu, Pritzker Prize winner 2012.
(Above: photo and construction of Panyaden School by Chiangmai Life Construction.)
New building underway! Before the New Year break we had only cleared the ground but CLC (Chiangmai Life Construction) have been working hard over the last few weeks and we now have part of the roof structure built and the first wall. Estimated completion date: one day before school opens….at least!!
Click here for the above photos on the blog image gallery.
From The Earth
Builder and co-founder of Panyaden School, Markus Roselieb (Chiangmai Life Construction (CLC)) talks about our bamboo and earth architecture in the April 2014 issue of The Magazine (Bangkok Post). Available at news stands and bookshops in Thailand.
Music and Drama Classrooms
To accommodate Panyaden’s expanding student population and its needs, Chiangmai Life Construction has been building in the plot next to the school’s rice fields. You may have noticed the earthen walls and bamboo structures growing each day. They will house our new Music and Drama wing for our students to enjoy their performance arts classes in. We are happy to announce that the building will be ready at the start of the next school year.
Today, reporters from Bangkok Business News (Nation Multimedia Group) visited Panyaden School to meet with our Founder, Yodphet Sudsawad and School Director, Neil Amas. They wanted to find out more about our school vision, our unique education approach and bilingualism.
The reporters also interviewed Markus Roselieb and Ajahn Decha Tiengkate from Chiangmai Life Construction (CLC) on the use of bamboo and earth for the school construction.
Look out for the paper’s articles (Sunday section and Architecture insert) in about 2 weeks!
Ecological footprint, carbon footprint, reduce your carbon emissions. Yes, you’ve heard it all before: about how we should reduce our various ‘footprints’ because we are hurting the environment, how each individual step can tip the ecological scale.
They are all true but hear me out before you roll your eyes at yet another ‘green’ lecture. Reducing your ‘carbon footprint’ is not about following a trend, conforming to a marketable buzzword, earning credits or about shouting out what you are doing to the whole world. It is simply about taking steps to balance out what you take from nature and your environment, and how you can respectfully return that favour.
In The Beginning. William Rees first used the phrase ‘ecological footprint’ in 1992 to describe the weight of what we take from the land and its ability to continue providing those resources. He talked about the “total area of land that is required to sustain its urban region” (Environment and Urbanization, https://eau.sagepub.com/content/4/2/121). This area is the land’s ‘ecological footprint’.
Somewhere along the line, the phrase became ‘carbon footprint’ which is a subset of the ecological footprint. It specifically refers to measuring the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases we release (in a year) to sustain our daily activities and how this weighs on our environment.
Primary Footprint. This is a measure of our direct emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and GHG from the burning of fossil fuels including domestic energy consumption and transportation (e.g. cars and buses). We have direct control of these.
Secondary Footprint. This measures the indirect CO2 and GHG emissions (embedded carbon) from the whole life cycle of products (manufacture, material & product transportation, installation etc) such as electricity and household appliances that we use in daily life. We may not have direct control of these.
Panyaden School’s Footprint. Panyaden School is diligently committed to keeping both its primary and secondary footprints small by reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. Together with Chiangmai Life Construction (CLC) and Utility Business Alliances (UBA), this green school is first assessing how much CO2 is produced from the time the first piece of bamboo (or any building material) is trucked to the construction factory to the end of the construction of each sala or building.
1 ton of clay has 0.0029 tons* of embedded carbon (tCO2 or tons of carbon dioxide released to make a kilogram of clay) + carbon emissions from transporting this clay to the construction site = x ton of CO2 (size of footprint).
By contrast, the process of making concrete generates a lot more carbon dioxide. 1 ton of concrete emits approximately 0.7 to 1 ton of embedded CO2. Add this to the transportation emissions and you understand why the ecological footprint of clay is only a fraction of this.
After this initial round of calculations, the School also plans to collect and analyze data including staff and school activities, the type/number of pieces of furniture used along with the amount of electricity spent for its operations.
While collecting the necessary construction data, the School is also actively trying to keep its CO2 emissions low. This is part of its responsibility to the community and to the environment. It also aims to educate its schoolchildren about environmental management such as how to reduce and recycle waste and how to conserve electricity.
Keeping It Low. What are the steps Panyaden School is taking to minimize and offset its carbon emissions?
1 Building Materials. The School maintains a small carbon footprint by choosing to build its infrastructures with natural materials like bamboo, stone and earth. Cement, concrete and steel rods are only used for foundations and support where appropriate.
When the structures’ rammed earth and adobe walls are demolished at the end of their life cycle, the earth will be returned to the soil and can be recycled again and again. This may be a long time coming but it is necessary to plan ahead and minimize any negative consequences of our current actions on the future of the natural world, our future.
2 Energy and electricity use. Panyaden’s decision to use natural building materials also goes a long way in conserving electricity. The rammed earth walls and floors, free-form adobe walls and bamboo structures are great for ventilation. The earth walls are excellent at absorbing heat during the day and keeping the rooms cool. There is no need for air-conditioning except in rooms that have computers.
3 Transportation. Carbon footprint data include modes of transportation and the distance between the source of supply and the construction site; how many trips and how much diesel and/or petrol are used. As an approximation, 100 litres of diesel produces about 312 kg* of CO2. Shorter and fewer trips via trucks = less diesel burned = less carbon released.
Efficient planning is needed to minimize travel and where possible, materials like earth are ‘harvested’ from the school grounds or sourced locally in Chiang Mai. The construction factory, CLC, is also located only about 2.7 km from the School – another saving on the amount and cost of fuel expended to transport building materials to the site.
4 Waste generation. Any waste on the construction site is recycled where possible. Leftover bamboo, for example, can be re-used as wooden nails (dowels), water mugs and scaffolds. Ground water from the site itself is pumped via simple pipes and used for various building work processes.
The teachers will also educate the children to be mindful about food and water usage. Any waste will be treated and recycled with low-energy waste management devices like the Food Waste Digester and Wastewater Treatment Plant.
Food waste: UBA estimates that 450 children and teachers (1 meal a day) may produce about 70 to 80kg of organic waste. The Food Waste Digester installed outside the kitchen/dining hall will recycle the waste into biogas (a renewable energy from organic mass) for cooking. The remaining solid waste from the Digester will be used as organic fertilizer (see post on the FWD).
Wastewater: Each person at the School may generate approximately 60 litres of wastewater per day. This liquid waste can be easily treated by the Wastewater Treatment Plant and safely drained into the natural waterways (see post on the WWT Plant). Per litre of wastewater that has been properly treated emits only 0.0012 kg of CO2 .
5 Plants. Aside from aesthetics, planting bamboo and other trees around the school is a great way to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and to release oxygen into the atmosphere.
6 Staff/school activities and transportation. Simple but efficient methods of further reducing its carbon footprint will be encouraged when the school is in full operation. These include recycling office and classroom paper, newspapers, drink containers, unplugging appliances when not using them, turning out lights when leaving a room and carpooling.
Cause And Effect. Panyaden School is mindful that every decision it makes will have an impact on its staff, its schoolchildren, the community and the environment. With this knowledge comes the need and the capacity to act responsibly.
Learning about the size of its carbon footprint is another way to help the School do what it can to manage all its resources and activities in sensible and respectful ways that ease and offset some of the burden we place daily on nature to absorb our carbon emissions. This alleviation is a step towards nurturing a healthy balance and harmony with the environment in which we live.
*Thai Greenhouse Gas Organization (TGO) Guidelines
With thanks to K. Alisa (UBA)
From Food Scraps to Natural Cooking Gas – Biogas
The environmental engineers at Utility Business Alliances (UBA) estimate that on average, 450 children and teachers (1 meal a day) will produce about 70 to 80kg of organic waste.
Instead of throwing that away and leaving it to be trucked to a landfill where it will decompose and rot with other materials to release greenhouse gases like methane into the environment, Panyaden School uses the food digester to turn the waste into biogas.
What is a Food Waste Digester?
The Food Waste Digester (FWD) is a tank in which bacteria digest and break down organic matter without using oxygen. Watch the YouTube video at the start of this post (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=but5ntRMQQc&feature=player_embedded). It demonstrates a simplified version of how an anaerobic digester like the FWD generally works to produce biogas, a clean natural gas that represents renewable energy.
Food waste that can easily go into the FWD are
For minimal labour input, biogas can replace firewood and fossil fuels that are becoming more expensive as supply lags behind demand (source: University of Adelaide, https://www.adelaide.edu.au/biogas). At Panyaden School, the biogas will be sent from the tank to the gas stove for cooking. Here’s some math that might help put things into perspective (approximations only):
80kg of food waste per day = approx. 2.5 m3 of biogas = 90min of cooking time
Another benefit of using the FWD is that the residual digested food waste (‘digestate’) that is routed to the sludge drying beds, can be recycled as organic fertilizer for planting.
There is no need to worry that using a food digester will attract vermin. It will not because the food waste is broken down under the ground. The FWD is also designed with fibre-reinforced plastic that keeps in odors that attract vermin.
The children at the School will also be able to learn from an early age, the science and application of fermentation, digestion, natural gases, renewable energy and of course, sensible waste management.
Note: Methane is not toxic when inhaled, but it can produce suffocation by reducing the concentration of oxygen inhaled (K. Alisa from UBA). When structures are built on or near landfills, methane can penetrate the buildings’ interiors and expose occupants to significant levels of methane, posing a high risk of causing asphyxiation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane).
“Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink.”
– The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Although Coleridge was writing about being surrounded by seawater that is unfit for consumption,
we may face the same ‘undrinkable’ scenario if we do not save our water resources or protect them
We apparently consume and generate an average of 10 billion pounds of solid and liquid waste each day. If we do not dispose of this waste responsibly, we could create environmental pollution that is hazardous to both humans and nature.
Waste water treatment
I wish there is a better way of naming this process but it is what it is – an efficient way of removing contaminants from liquid waste and safely discharging or reusing the resulting effluent and sludge.
Besides using natural materials for its construction, Panyaden School treats waste water as part of its ‘green mindfulness’ to save water to reduce its ecological footprint. The students gain firsthand knowledge of water conservation and responsible wastewater management.
How waste water is treated at Panyaden School
Have a look at the diagram of the waste water treatment (I’d refer to it as WWT) plant that the school’s construction company, Chiangmai Life Construction has discreetly built at the back of its premises with the help of environmental consultants from Utility Business Alliance (UBA*).
The UBA team from Bangkok has designed the main WWT capsule to be placed safely underground where it will not be an eye sore.
There are 2 basic stages to a standard WWT plant:
|Primary Stage: From the Equalization or EQ Tank where it is contained, the wastewater first passes through a physical stage where large, solid garbage is filtered out and separated from the lighter waste such as grease and oils. These will settle to the bottom while the grease and oils rise to the surface.|
After stage 2, the wastewater may still contain some organic compounds, phosphates, nitrates and pathogens. These can be further removed in the third level through a series of chemical and physical processes. However the effluent discharged from Stage 2 (with the proper design and operation) normally passes the effluent standard, hence eliminating the need for further treatment.
How the treated water is used at Panyaden School
The School’s WWT plant treats the water up to the secondary stage. The treated water is safe and clean enough to be discharged into the natural waterways. The bacteria-rich sludge is used as organic fertilizer.
Clean water everywhere
We can all do our part to conserve water and ease the pressure on waste treatment plants in our town, city or state. Pause and think a little before you turn on the tap. Let’s do what we can to ensure we will have enough clean water everywhere in the future, “flowing, ever flowing” (Andrew B. Paterson, poet).
*Utility Business Alliances Co., Ltd. (UBA), https://www.uba.co.th
Established in 2000 by a group of science professionals, the company specializes in water pollution management. It is accepted as one of the leaders in waste and water management treatment in Thailand.
UBA is certified with international qualification standards of ISO9001 and ISO14001 (Environment Management System).
The UBA team for Panyaden School is made up of K. Bordin Udon, K. Piti Julkhananukit, K. Somchat Sanghitkul and K. Alisa Wichichiencharoen. They are working on 3 projects for the School:
- Designing and building the WWT plant
- Designing the Food Waste Digester (look out for our next post on this)
- Measuring the School’s carbon footprint and recommending ways of
keeping it low